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Title of article :
الخوارزمي طود الجبر و الفلك و الاسطرلاب
Author/Authors :
آل قيس، قيس نويسنده ,
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Abstract :
Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi was born at Khawarizm (Kheva), south of Aral sea. Very little is known about his early life, except for the fact that his parents had migrated to a place south of Baghdad. The exact dates of his birth and death are also not known, but it is established that he flourished under Al- Mamun at Baghdad through 813-833 and probably died around 840 A.D. Khawarizmi was a mathematician, astronomer and geographer. He was perhaps one of the greatest mathematicians who ever lived, as, in fact, he was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. He influenced mathematical thought to a greater extent than any other mediaeval writer. His work on algebra was outstanding, as he not only initiated the subject in a systematic form but he also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations, which established him as the founder of Algebra. The very name Algebra has been derived from his famous book Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah. His arithmetic synthesised Greek and Hindu knowledge and also contained his own contribution of fundamental importance to mathematics and science. Thus, he explained the use of zero, a numeral of fundamental importance developed by the Arabs. Similarly, he developed the decimal system so that the overall system of numerals, ʹalgorithmʹ or ʹalgorizmʹ is named after him. In addition to introducing the Indian system of numerals (now generally known as Arabic numerals), he developed at length several arithmetical procedures, including operations on fractions. It was through his work that the system of numerals was first introduced to Arabs and later to Europe, through its translations in European languages. He developed in detail trigonometric tables containing the sine functions, which were probably extrapolated to tangent functions by Maslama. He also perfected the geometric representation of conic sections and developed the calculus of two errors, which practically led him to the concept of differentiation. He is also reported to have collaborated in the degree measurements ordered by Mamun al-Rashid which were aimed at measuring the volume and circumference of the earth.
Arabic abstract :
عندما شملتِ الارضَ رحمه السما ، و سادت رساله خاتم الانبيا (ص) و رفرف بيرقُ الاسلام علي ارجا المعموره بشريعته السمحا ، من الصين الي الاندلس و القاره السودا ، انتشرت اللغه العربيه علي اعتبارها لغه القرآن و الدين في كافه البلاد الاسلاميه و استعمل المسلمون العربيه في جلّ ما دوّنوه من مصنفات و مولفات و اكتشافات و اختراعات. امّا الشعب الايراني فسرْعان ما استوعب معني الدين الجديد حيث اعتنق الايرانيون الاسلام الذي تفاعل مع تراثهم الحضاري و اندمجوا فيه و استطاعوا ان يكونوا اكبر و اعظم غصون شجره علومه اليانعه، و منهم: ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسي الخورازمي، من اهل خورازم ببلاد فارس. كان عالماً بالرياضيات فلكياً جغرافياً. له فضل في تعريف العرب و الاوروبيين بنظام الاعداد الهندي، وضع كتابا في الحساب يعتبر الاول من نوعه و كان اول كتاب دخل اوروبا و بقي زمنا طويلاً مرجع العلما و التجار و الحاسبين. عُرف علم الحساب عده قرون باسم الغورتمي نسبه الي الخورازمي. يعتبر موسس علم الجبر علما مستقلاً عن الحساب، و قد قام بحل معادلات الدرجه الثانيه بطرق هندسيه و اوجد جذريها اذا كانا موجبين. و نشر اول جداول عربيه عن المثلثات للجيوب و الظلال. ترجمت الي الاتينيه في القرن 12 الميلادي. و يعتقد انه اشترك في قياس محيط الارض ايام المامون كما ادخل تحسينات علي جغرافيه بطلميوس، و نشر كتاب «صوره الارض».
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