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Title of article :
Biological effects of physically conditioned water
Author/Authors :
A. Goldsworthy، نويسنده , , H. Whitney، نويسنده , , E. Morris، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 1999
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Abstract :
Physically conditioned water, made by passage between the poles of a magnet or by injecting a weak electrical signal, is used for the prevention and removal of lime-scale, but also has diverse biological effects. In this investigation, we have shown both stimulations and inhibitions of the multiplication of yeast cells, depending on the degree of conditioning. Weakly conditioned water is stimulatory, but strongly conditioned water is inhibitory. Conditioned water also increases the toxicity of heavy metal ions such as copper and cobalt. We suggest that these effects are due to colloidal impurities, which have been activated by the conditioning process, interacting with structural calcium in the cell membranes to make them more permeable. The stimulations may be due to the inward leakage of small amounts of calcium to stimulate metabolism by acting as a “secondary messenger”. The inhibitions may be due to more severe damage to the membranes allowing the entry of larger and more toxic quantities of calcium and, if present, other noxious materials. This is discussed in relation to the beneficial and adverse effects of conditioned water on the growth and well-being of higher organisms. Possible applications include stimulating the growth of organisms at optimum levels of conditioning, inhibiting unwanted microorganisms at higher levels and increasing the efficacy of biocides. Attention is also drawn to a similarity between the biological effects of conditioned water and those of weak electromagnetic fields. We discuss the possibility that some of the effects of electromagnetic fields on living organisms are due to their interacting with colloidal cell components and membrane surfaces by a mechanism analogous to the conditioning of water. This is discussed in relation to ion cyclotron resonance phenomena and an explanation based on our proposals given for the hitherto unexplained differences in biological responses to the resonant frequencies for calcium and potassium ions.
Keywords :
Calcium , electromagnetic-fields , Biocides , cyclotron resonance , Water-treatment , Yeast , Membranes , growth , per-meability
Journal title :
Water Research
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