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Title of article :
Coordinate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 genes in uterine tissues of endotoxin-treated pregnant mice, , ,
Author/Authors :
Carmen M. Swaisgood، نويسنده , , Hong-Xiang Zu، نويسنده , , Douglas J. Perkins، نويسنده , , Shenchuan Wu، نويسنده , , Cynthia L. Garver، نويسنده , , Peter D. Zimmerman، نويسنده , , Jay D. Iams، نويسنده , , Douglas A. Kniss، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 1997
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Abstract :
Objectives: Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase genes after labor induction with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in a murine model of preterm parturition. Study Design: Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were given Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (20 μg per mouse) by intraperitoneal injection on day 16 of gestation, and the animals were followed up for signs of labor. Control mice received an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution. The latency from lipopolysaccharide injections until appearance of the first pup was recorded. Two separate groups of mice were given either aminoguanidine or indomethacin (5 mg/kg intragastric) 24 hours before induction of preterm labor. In a separate set of experiments mice were treated with lipopolysaccharide as described and were killed at intervals from 0.5 to 72 hours and intrauterine tissues (uterus, placenta, and fetal membranes) were removed and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Total protein and ribonucleic acid were extracted for Western and Northern blot analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein and messenger ribonucleic acid, respectively. Results: Northern blots from uterine, placental, and fetal membrane tissues of lipopolysaccharide- and saline solution–treated mice revealed that cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid transcripts were rapidly (within 0.5 to 2 hours) up-regulated after lipopolysaccharide administration but were unchanged in mice injected with saline solution. Immunoblot analysis with isoform-specific antibodies revealed that both enzymes were expressed in uterus, placenta, and fetal membranes in a coordinated fashion with peak expression seen at 6 to 8 hours. Although the steady-state accumulation of messenger ribonucleic acid transcripts encoding cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase peaked at 6 hours and declined to baseline by 16 hours after injection with lipopolysaccharide, expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase was sustained through the period when premature delivery was observed. Nitric oxide–dependent cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was demonstrated by the elimination of accumulation of both messenger ribonucleic acid transcripts in mice pretreated with aminoguanidine before injection with lipopolysaccharide. Conclusions: These data indicate that nitric oxide synthesis may be a prerequisite for subsequent stimulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression. Taken together, the data suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase are expressed in a coordinated manner in the uterus of endotoxin-challenged pregnant mice and that their enzymatic products may contribute to the signaling of uterine activity or cervical changes culminating in expulsion of the fetus.
Keywords :
Cyclooxygenase-2 , inducible nitric oxide syntt~ase , preterm labor , Endotoxin , prostaglandins
Journal title :
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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