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Title of article :
Optimizing Water Treatment with Two-Stage Coagulation
Author/Authors :
Carlson، Kenneth H. نويسنده , , Gregory، Dean نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
ماهنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2000
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Abstract :
Drinking water utilities are facing increasing regulatory pressure to optimize treatment processes, particularly the filtration process that is relied on as a physical barrier to pathogen contamination. In the presence of high concentrations of natural organic matter, traditional coagulation processes can be inadequate to meet these future standards. In this study, a natural water with a high total organic carbon concentration (> 6 mg/L) was used to compare one- and two-stage alum coagulation processes. The twostage coagulation process involved the application of alum at two locations separated by approximately 60 s of detention time. Bench-scale experiments were conducted with various water quality conditions and verified at the pilot scale. The settled-water turbidity was 25% less using the two-stage process, and the steady-state filter effluent particle counts for the two-stage process were approximately 50% lower than for the single-stage process. More importantly, the two-stage process did not exhibit particle breakthrough during a typical filter run, whereas the one-stage process broke through 3 h before the hydraulic completion of the run. Additional bench-scale experiments allowed a mechanism for the improved process performance to be proposed.
Keywords :
immunostimulant , FISH , Glucans , diet
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