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Complete tidal evolution of Pluto–Charon
Author/Authors :
Cheng، نويسنده , , W.H. and Lee، نويسنده , , Man Hoi and Peale، نويسنده , , S.J.، نويسنده ,
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روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2014
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Abstract :
Both Pluto and its satellite Charon have rotation rates synchronous with their orbital mean motion. This is the theoretical end point of tidal evolution where transfer of angular momentum has ceased. Here we follow Pluto’s tidal evolution from an initial state having the current total angular momentum of the system but with Charon in an eccentric orbit with semimajor axis a ≈ 4 R P (where R P is the radius of Pluto), consistent with its impact origin. Two tidal models are used, where the tidal dissipation function Q ∝ 1 /frequency and Q = constant, where details of the evolution are strongly model dependent. The inclusion of the gravitational harmonic coefficient C 22 of both bodies in the analysis allows smooth, self consistent evolution to the dual synchronous state, whereas its omission frustrates successful evolution in some cases. The zonal harmonic J 2 can also be included, but does not cause a significant effect on the overall evolution. The ratio of dissipation in Charon to that in Pluto controls the behavior of the orbital eccentricity, where a judicious choice leads to a nearly constant eccentricity until the final approach to dual synchronous rotation. The tidal models are complete in the sense that every nuance of tidal evolution is realized while conserving total angular momentum—including temporary capture into spin–orbit resonances as Charon’s spin decreases and damped librations about the same.
Keywords :
Formation , Pluto , tides , Satellites , solid body , resonances , satellites , Dynamics , satellites , Spin-orbit
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