Title of article :
Hydrologic modeling of flood conveyance and impacts of historic overbank sedimentation on West Fork Blackʹs Fork, Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, USA
Carson، نويسنده , , Eric C.، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2006
This study assesses historic overbank alluvial sedimentation along a low-gradient reach of West Fork Blackʹs Fork in the northern Uinta Mountains, Utah. In this previously glaciated setting, an alluvial floodplain that is approximately 400 m wide by 1500 m long has been modified by the combined effects of valley morphometry and the recent history of clear-cut logging during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. To quantify the effects on sedimentation and flow conveyance, three natural streambank exposures were sampled and analyzed for nuclear bomb fallout 137Cs. The distribution of 137Cs within the three profiles suggests that a remnant outwash terrace exerts a first-order control over the deposition of overbank alluvium. Upstream from a constriction in the floodplain caused by the terrace remnant, as much as 40 cm of overbank alluvium has been deposited since the beginning of clear-cut logging. Immediately downstream of that constriction, no evidence exists for any overbank sedimentation during that same period. Vibracore samples and Oakfield soil probe sampling throughout the study reach quantified the geographic extent and thicknesses of the historic alluvial package. Flood conveyance through the study area was modeled using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS modeling program. Model simulations were run for modern conditions (using surveyed topography) and for prehistoric conditions (using the modern topography less the historic alluvial package determined by 137Cs analyses). Model results indicate that the floodplain constriction caused a significant impediment to flood conveyance at even modest discharges during prehistoric conditions. This promoted ponding of floodwaters upstream of the constriction and deposition of alluvium. This has increased bank heights upstream of the constriction, to the point that under modern conditions 1- to 5-year recurrence interval floods are largely confined within the channel. These results confirm the validity of this new approach of combining 137Cs dating of alluvial sediments with HEC-RAS flow modeling to compare flood conveyance along a single stream reach prior to and since an abrupt change in alluvial sedimentation patterns.
fluvial , Overbank sedimentation , HEC-RAS , Uinta Mountains
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