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Title of article :
Food webs and physical–biological coupling on pan-Arctic shelves: Unifying concepts and comprehensive perspectives
Author/Authors :
Carmack، نويسنده , , Eddy and Wassmann، نويسنده , , Paul، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2006
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Abstract :
Perhaps more than in any other ocean, our understanding of the continental shelves of the Arctic Mediterranean is decidedly disciplinary, regional and fractured, and this shortcoming must be addressed if we are to face and prepare for climate change. A fundamental flaw is that while excellent process studies exist, and while recent ship-based expeditions have added greatly to our collective body of knowledge, an integrated and fully pan-Arctic perspective on the structure and function of food webs on Arctic shelves is lacking. Based on the collective overviews given in Progress in Oceanography xx, xx–xx, we attempt to address this issue. To build a perspective that inter-connects the various shelf regions we suggest three unifying typologies affecting food webs that will hopefully allow inter-comparison of regional investigations. The first is for shelf geography, wherein shelves are classified according to their role in the Arctic throughflow. The second is for ice climate, wherein the various ice regimes are examined for their specific impacts on food web dynamics. The third is for stratification where it is argued that the source of buoyancy, thermal or haline, impacts production and the vertical carbon flux. We then address the connection between physical habitat and biota on pan-Arctic (and global climate) scales. This discussion begins with the recognition that the Arctic Ocean is integral to the World Ocean via its thermohaline (“estuarine”) exchanges with the Atlantic and Pacific. As such the Arctic and its shelves act as a double estuary, wherein incoming waters become both lighter (positive estuary), by mixing with freshwater sources, and heavier (negative estuary) by cooling and brine release. Shelves are central to such transformations. This complex interconnectivity coupling of the Arctic Ocean to its sub-Arctic (and more productive) neighbors demands that food webs be considered through a macroecological view that includes an ecology of advection. We argue that the macroecological view is required if we are to understand and model food webs under forcing along climate gradients. To aid this effort we introduce the concept of contiguous domains, wherein physical habitats are joined by common features that will allow inter-comparisons of existing and future food webs over large scales and climatic gradients. Finally, we speculate on the range of possible futures for Arctic shelves based on the palaeo-record.
Journal title :
Progress in Oceanography
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