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Title of article :
Grazing suppression of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) accumulation in iron-fertilised, sub-Antarctic waters
Author/Authors :
Archer، نويسنده , , S.D. and Safi، نويسنده , , K. and Hall، نويسنده , , A. and Cummings، نويسنده , , D.G. and Harvey، نويسنده , , M.، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2011
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Abstract :
The impact of in situ iron fertilisation on the production of particulate dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSPp) and its breakdown product dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was monitored during the SOLAS air–sea gas exchange experiment (SAGE). The experiment was conducted in the high nitrate, low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean (46.7°S 172.5°E) to the south-east of New Zealand, during March–April, 2004. In addition to monitoring net changes in the standing stocks of DMSPp and DMS, a series of dilution experiments were used to determine the DMSPp production and consumption rates in relation to increased iron availability. In contrast to previous experiments in the Southern Ocean, DMS concentrations decreased over the course of the 15-d iron-fertilisation experiment, from an integrated volume-specific concentration in the mixed layer on day 0 of 0.78 nM (measured values 0.65–0.91 nM) to 0.46 nM (measured values 0.42–0.47 nM) by day 15, in parallel with the surrounding waters. DMSPp, chlorophyll a and the abundance of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes exhibited indiscernible or only moderate increases in response to the raised iron availability, despite an obvious physiological response by the phytoplankton. High specific growth rates of DMSPp, equivalent to 0.8–1.2 doublings d−1, occurred at the simulated 60% light level of the dilution experiments. Despite the high production rates, DMSPp accumulation was suppressed in part by microzooplankton grazers who consumed between 61% d−1 and 126% d−1 of the DMSPp production. Temporal trends in the rates of production and consumption illustrated a close coupling between the DMSP-producing phytoplankton and their microzooplankton grazers. Similar grazing and production rates were observed for the eukaryotic picophytoplankton that dominated the phytoplankton biomass, partial evidence that picoeukaryotes contributed a substantial proportion of the DMSP synthesis. These rates for DMSPp and picoeukaryotes were considerably higher than for chlorophyll a, indicating higher cycling rates of the DMSP-producing taxa than for the bulk phytoplankton community. When compared to the total phytoplankton community, there was no evidence of selection against the DMSP-containing phytoplankton by the microzooplankton grazers; the opposite appeared to be the case. SAGE demonstrated that increased iron availability in the HNLC waters of the Southern Ocean does not invariably lead to enhanced DMS sea–air flux. The potential suppression of DMSPp accumulation by grazers needs to be taken into account in future attempts to elevate DMS emission through in situ iron fertilisation and in understanding the hypothesised link between levels of Aeolian iron deposition in the Southern Ocean, DMS emission and global albedo.
Keywords :
Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) , Iron fertilisation , Southern Ocean , Dimethylsulphonioproprionate (DMSP) production and consumption
Journal title :
Deep-sea research part II: Topical Studies in oceanography
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