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Title of article :
The sub-Antarctic euthecosome pteropod, Limacina retroversa: Distribution patterns and trophic role
Author/Authors :
Bernard، نويسنده , , K.S. and Froneman، نويسنده , , P.W.، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2009
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Abstract :
Our understanding of the role that euthecosome pteropods play in the Southern Ocean is relatively limited. The aim of the present study was thus to examine the role of the sub-Antarctic species, Limacina retroversa, in the pelagic ecosystem of the Indian sector of the Polar Frontal Zone. Results from the study indicate that while L. retroversa might not dominate total mesozooplankton densities (the mesozooplankton community was always dominated by copepods, averaging >75% throughout the entire investigation), with an average contribution of only 5% to total mesozooplankton numbers, the species is capable of contributing substantially to total mesozooplankton grazing impact, out-grazing the dominant copepods (Calanus simillimuis, Ctenocalanus spp., Clausocalanus spp. and Oithona similis) 33% of the time. During the investigation, L. retroversa exhibited grazing impacts contributing to between 2% and 89% of the total per day. In addition to their exceptionally high grazing rates, our data suggest a coupling of L. retroversa densities to phytoplankton biomass. In fact, a significant decline in pteropod densities was recorded coinciding with extremely low phytoplankton concentrations. During the investigation the size structure of the pteropod community was predominantly made up of small- and medium-sized individuals; suggesting that spawning had taken place in summer during all 3 years. Although this trend was observed across all three surveys, the relative contributions of the three size classes varied significantly between the surveys, indicating a variable spawning period, similar to that observed in the northern hemisphere. In addition, reduced food availability during one of the surveys appeared to have resulted in delayed spawning as low relative abundances of small individuals and high relative abundances of large individuals were recorded during that survey.
Keywords :
Distribution Patterns , Grazing impact , Population dynamics , Ocean acidification , Euthecosome , Thecosome , Limacina , Pteropod , sub-Antarctic , Retroversa , Polar frontal zone , Southern Ocean , Trophic importance
Journal title :
Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
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