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Title of article :
Mammaglobin B as a novel marker for detection of breast cancer micrometastases in axillary lymph nodes by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
Author/Authors :
Aihara، Tomohiko نويسنده , , Fujiwara، Yoshiyuki نويسنده , , Ooka، Masaru نويسنده , , Sakita، Isao نويسنده , , Tamaki، Yasuhiro نويسنده , , Monden، Morito نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 1999
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Abstract :
With the current trend away from affirmative action programs, it is increasingly important that universities retain the African American and Latino students that they admit. In 1988 the University of Texas at Austin (UT) established the Emerging Scholars Program (ESP) to challenge highachieving students to excel in calculus and pursue mathematics, science, or engineering (MSE) majors. The university makes a special effort to recruit African Americans, Latinos, and women, but the ESP is open to any student, regardless of race or ethnicity, who is committed to excel in calculus. We analyze the influence of calculus performance on choosing a mathematics, science, or engineering major by focusing on variations by race, ethnicity, and gender and on the role of studentsʹ participation in the ESP. Findings suggest that ESP students earn higher calculus grades than non-ESP students and are more likely to enroll in the second semester of calculus. Also, earning higher calculus grades increases the likelihood that students will choose a major in mathematics, science, or engineering. These findings suggest that to increase the number of students choosing one of these majors, administrators must seek ways to increase studentsʹ participation in calculus each semester. In addition, African Americans, Latinos, and women excel in calculus if they receive appropriate academic challenges and support.
Keywords :
diagnosis , gene transcript , molecular marker , reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction , micrometastasis
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