Carretero، نويسنده , , M. Isabel and Pozo، نويسنده , , Manuel، نويسنده ,
A wide range and variety of minerals are used in the pharmaceutical industry as active ingredients. Such minerals may be administered either orally as antacids, gastrointestinal protectors, antidiarrhoeaics, osmotic oral laxatives, homeostatics, direct emetics, antianemics and mineral supplements, or parenterally as antianemics and homeostatics. They may also be used topically as antiseptics, disinfectants, dermatological protectors, anti-inflammatories, local anesthetics, keratolytic reducers and decongestive eye drops. In all cases the LADME process of the minerals is described. In the cosmetic industry minerals are used as solar protectors as well as in toothpastes, creams, powder and emulsions, bathroom salts and deodorants.
nerals in use belong to the following groups: oxides (rutile, periclase, zincite), carbonates (calcite, magnesite, hydrocincite, smithsonite), sulphates (epsomite, mirabilite, melanterite, chalcanthite, zincosite, goslarite, alum), chlorides (halite, sylvite), hydroxides (brucite, gibbsite, hydrotalcite), elements (sulphur), sulphides (greenockite), phosphates (hydroxyapatite), nitrates (niter), borates (borax) and phyllosilicates (smectite, palygorskite, sepiolite, kaolinite, talc, mica).
erapeutic activity of these minerals is controlled by their physical and physico-chemical properties as well as their chemical composition. The important properties are high sorption capacity, large specific surface area, solubility in water, reactivity toward acids, high refractive index, high heat retention capacity, opacity, low hardness, astringency, and high reflectance.