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Title of article :
Urinary biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Egypt and Guinea
Author/Authors :
Aggeliki and Polychronaki، نويسنده , , Nektaria and Wild، نويسنده , , Christopher P. and Mykkنnen، نويسنده , , Hannu and Amra، نويسنده , , Hassan and Abdel-Wahhab، نويسنده , , Mosaad and Sylla، نويسنده , , Abdoulaye and Diallo، نويسنده , , Mamadou and El-Nezami، نويسنده , , Hani and Turner، نويسنده , , Paul C.، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2008
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Abstract :
Aflatoxins are a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and thus understanding the pattern of aflatoxin exposure in different regions is important in order to develop targeted intervention strategies. Given the early onset of HCC in many countries early life exposures may be important. This study investigated aflatoxin exposure in Egyptian children (n = 50, aged 1–2.5 years) by assessing urinary aflatoxin metabolite (AFM1, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) levels. Samples from Guinean children (n = 50, aged 2–4 years) were analyzed in parallel providing a comparison to a region of established frequent aflatoxin exposure. Aflatoxins were isolated from urine using C18-cartridges followed by immunoaffinity clean-up, and quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Overall aflatoxins were less frequently present in Egyptian (38%) than Guinean urine samples (86%) (p < 0.001), which was particularly related to differences in detection rates of AFM1 (8% compared to 64%, respectively, (p < 0.001)). For AFM1 the geometric mean level in Guinea (16.3 pg/ml; 95% CI: 10.1, 26.6 pg/ml) was 6-fold higher (p < 0.001) than in Egypt (2.7 pg/ml; 95% CI: 2.5, 2.8 pg/ml). Urinary aflatoxins from healthy children in these two regions have not previously been reported, and exposure appears modest in Egypt compared to Guinea. These data suggest that measures to reduce aflatoxin exposure in both regions are important, though particularly in Guinea.
Keywords :
urine , EGYPT , Guinea , children , Aflatoxins , weaning
Journal title :
Food and Chemical Toxicology
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