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Title of article :
Autophagy, ageing and apoptosis: The role of oxidative stress and lysosomal iron
Author/Authors :
Kurz، نويسنده , , Tino and Terman، نويسنده , , Alexei and Brunk، نويسنده , , Ulf T.، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2007
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Abstract :
As an outcome of normal autophagic degradation of ferruginous materials, such as ferritin and mitochondrial metalloproteins, the lysosomal compartment is rich in labile iron and, therefore, sensitive to the mild oxidative stress that cells naturally experience because of their constant production of hydrogen peroxide. Diffusion of hydrogen peroxide into the lysosomes results in Fenton-type reactions with the formation of hydroxyl radicals and ensuing peroxidation of lysosomal contents with formation of lipofuscin that amasses in long-lived postmitotic cells. Lipofuscin is a non-degradable polymeric substance that forms at a rate that is inversely related to the average lifespan across species and is built up of aldehyde-linked protein residues. The normal accumulation of lipofuscin in lysosomes seems to reduce autophagic capacity of senescent postmitotic cells—probably because lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes continue to receive newly formed lysosomal enzymes, which results in lack of such enzymes for autophagy. The result is an insufficient and declining rate of autophagic turnover of worn-out and damaged cellular components that consequently accumulate in a way that upsets normal metabolism. In the event of a more substantial oxidative stress, enhanced formation of hydroxyl radicals within lysosomes jeopardizes the membrane stability of particularly iron-rich lysosomes, specifically of autophagolysosomes that have recently participated in the degradation of iron-rich materials. For some time, the rupture of a limited number of lysosomes has been recognized as an early upstream event in many cases of apoptosis, particularly oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, while necrosis results from a major lysosomal break. Consequently, the regulation of the lysosomal content of redox-active iron seems to be essential for the survival of cells both in the short- and the long-term.
Keywords :
Autophagy , lysosomes , apoptosis , ageing , oxidative stress , Lipofuscin , Redox-active iron
Journal title :
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Link To Document :