Title of article :
Cytochrome b5 reductase: the roles of the recessive congenital methemoglobinemia mutants P144L, L148P, and R159*
Ainsley Davis، نويسنده , , C. and Crowley، نويسنده , , Louis J. and Barber، نويسنده , , Michael J.، نويسنده ,
Recessive congenital methemoglobinemia (RCM, OMIM 250800) arises from defects in either the erythrocytic or microsomal forms of the flavoprotein, cytochrome b5 reductase (cb5r) and was the first disease to be directly associated with a specific enzyme deficiency. Of the 33 verified mutations in cb5r that give rise to either the type I (erythrocytic) or type II (generalized) forms of RCM, three of the mutations, corresponding to P144L, L148P, and R159*, are located in a segment of the primary sequence composed of residues G143 to V171 which serves as a “hinge” or “linker” region between the FAD- and NADH-binding lobes of the protein. With the exception of R159*, which produces a truncated non-functional cb5r resulting in type II RCM, the type I methemoglobinemias resulting from the P144L or L148P mutations have been proposed to be due to decreased enzyme stability. Utilizing a recombinant form of the rat cb5r enzyme, we have generated the P144L, L148P, and P144L/L148P mutants, purified the resulting proteins to homogeneity and characterized their spectroscopic, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties. The three mutant proteins retained full complements of FAD with the P144L and L148P variants being spectroscopically indistinguishable from wild-type cb5r. In contrast, kinetic analyses revealed that the P144L, L148P, and P144L/L148P variants retained only 28, 31, and 8% of wild-type NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase activity, respectively, together with significant alterations in affinity for both NADH and NAD+. In addition, FAD oxidation–reduction potentials were 32, 19, and 65 mV more positive for the mutants than the corresponding FAD/FADH2 couple in native cb5r ( E 0 ′ = - 272 mV ) . Thermal and proteolytic stability measurements indicated that all three mutants were less stable than the wild-type protein while differential spectroscopy indicated altered pyridine nucleotide binding in all three variants. These results demonstrate that the “hinge” region is important in maintaining the correct orientation of the flavin- and pyridine nucleotide-binding lobes within the protein for efficient electron transfer and that the P144L and L148P mutations disrupt the normal registration of the FAD- and NADH-binding lobes resulting in altered affinities for both the physiological reducing substrate, NADH and its product, NAD+.