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Title of article :
Task scheduling by guided simulated annealing
Author/Authors :
CHENG، C. H. نويسنده , , MAK، RAYMOND W. T. نويسنده , , TUMMALA، V. M. RAO نويسنده , , FETRING، BRUCE R. نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 1999
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Abstract :
A novel, invert emulsion Quid useful in the drilling, completion, and workover of subterranean wells has been invented. The new invert emulsion drilling fluid can readily and reversibly be eonverted from an invert, i.e., water-in-oil emulsion, to a regular, i.e., oil-in-water emulsion, and back lo the original invert emulsion using an acid-base chemical switch. The surfactants used in the reversible invert emulsion fluids are strong invert emulsiflers in the presence of lime. However, the same surfactants become regular emulsifiers in the presence of water-soluble acid. The reversible emulsion properly of these surfactants allows the drilling fluid to be changed from an invert emulsion to a regular emulsion at different stages of the drilling/completion operation. During the drilling stage, the drilling fluid can be an invert emulsion achieving all the performance benefits associated with oil-based muds (OEMs). During the completion stage and afterwards, the emulsion can be reversed by adding water-soluble acid, thus providing excellent filtercake cleanups, improved production in an openhole completion, better cementing, and efficient cuttings cleanup and waste minimization. The reversible system is simple and easy to run without any exotic changes in current operations or other ad ditives than those commonly used in OBMs. The reversible drilling fluid is versatile and relatively inexpensive and versatile, especially as compared to new, exotic fluids on the market today. The reversible feature allows the mud to achieve performance, production, minimal environmental impact, and cost control. The paper discusses the overall impact of reversible invert emulsion technology in meeting the environmental and functional requirements of drilling operations. The laboratory data show that this system can provide drilling performance simitar lo OBMs at various oil/water (O/W) ratios, mud weights, and in the presence of commonly encountered contaminants. This paper compares the new reversible fluids with previous state-of-the-art invert emulsion drilling fluids. These new stable, reversible invert emulsion drilling fluids can readily be reversed to regular emulsions using inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid or organic acids such as citric acid. The paper discusses the application of reversible emulsion technology on efficient removal of filter cake and improved production in openhole horizontal well completions. The environmental impacts of this system on washing and disposal of drilled cuttings are discussed.
Keywords :
Simulated annealing , guided , manufacturing environment
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