Carreiras، نويسنده , , Joمo M.B. and Pereira، نويسنده , , José M.C. and Campagnolo، نويسنده , , Manuel L. and Shimabukuro، نويسنده , , Yosio E.، نويسنده ,
There has been growing concern about land use/land cover change in tropical regions, as there is evidence of its influence on the observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and consequent climatic changes. Mapping of deforestation by the Brazilʹs National Space Research Institute (INPE) in areas of primary tropical forest using satellite data indicates a value of 587,727 km2 up to the year 2000. Although most of the efforts have been concentrated in mapping primary tropical forest deforestation, there is also evidence of large-scale deforestation in the cerrado savanna, the second most important biome in the region.
in purpose of this work was to assess the extent of agriculture/pasture and secondary succession forest in the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) in 2000, using a set of multitemporal images from the 1-km SPOT-4 VEGETATION (VGT) sensor. Additionally, we discriminated primary tropical forest, cerrado savanna, and natural/artificial waterbodies. Four classification algorithms were tested: quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), simple classification trees (SCT), probability-bagging classification trees (PBCT), and k-nearest neighbors (K-NN). The agriculture/pasture class is a surrogate for those areas cleared of its original vegetation cover in the past, acting as a source of carbon. On the contrary, the secondary succession forest class behaves as a sink of carbon.
d a time series of 12 monthly composite images of the year 2000, derived from the SPOT-4 VGT sensor. A set of 19 Landsat scenes was used to select training and testing data. A 10-fold cross validation procedure rated PBCT as the best classification algorithm, with an overall sample accuracy of 0.92. High omission and commission errors occurred in the secondary succession forest class, due to confusion with agriculture/pasture and primary tropical forest classes. However, the PBCT algorithm generated the lower misclassification error in this class. Besides, this algorithm yields information about class membership probability, with ∼80% of the pixels with class membership probability greater or equal than 0.8. The estimated total area of agriculture/pasture and secondary succession forest in 2000 in the BLA was 966 × 103 and 140 × 103 km2, respectively. Comparison with an existing land cover map indicates that agriculture/pasture occurred primarily in areas previously occupied by primary tropical forest (46%) and cerrado savanna (33%), and also in transition forest (19%), and other vegetation types (2%). This further confirms the existing evidence of extensive cerrado savanna conversion.
tudy also concludes that SPOT-4 VGT data are adequate for discriminating several major land cover types in tropical regions. Agriculture/pasture was mapped with errors of about 5%. Very high classification errors were associated with secondary succession forest, suggesting that a different methodology/sensor has to be used to address this difficult land cover class (namely with the inclusion of ancillary data). For the other classes, we consider that accurate maps can be derived from SPOT-4 VGT data with errors lower than 20% for the cerrado savanna, and errors lower than 10% for the other land cover classes. These estimates may be useful to evaluate impacts of land use/land cover change on the carbon and water cycles, biotic diversity, and soil degradation.
Supervised classification , SPOT-4 VEGETATION (VGT) , Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) , Secondary succession forest , Agriculture/pasture