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Title of article :
Application of heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of refined palm oil in ultrasound-assisted reactor
Author/Authors :
Choedkiatsakul، نويسنده , , I. and Ngaosuwan، نويسنده , , K. and Assabumrungrat، نويسنده , , S.، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2013
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Abstract :
This research investigated the application of commercial heterogeneous catalysts i.e., calcium oxide (CaO) and potassium phosphate (K3PO4) for biodiesel production in an ultrasound-assisted reactor (US). For comparison, the results from the use of homogeneous catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as well as from the use of conventional mechanical stirred reactor (MS) were also studied. High methyl ester yields were achieved in the US reactor for both CaO (90%) and K3PO4 (80%). The mixing characteristics generated from US and MS reactors resulted in the different performance (activation and deactivation) of CaO and K3PO4 catalyzed transesterification. The major overcome of using US reactor for heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification was found in the catalyst reusability test. Methyl ester yield of CaO catalyst gradually reduced when applying US reactor compared to MS reactor, particularly in the last cycle. The dissolution effect was more severe when employing K3PO4 catalyst in the MS reactor due to the mechanical stress and the mixing characteristic effects. Therefore, the use of US reactor did not only provide the high methyl ester yield in a short reaction time but also showed the hindrance of dissolution compared to the MS reactor. It can be concluded that the heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification in US reactor was not only favorable in the activation but also diminishable in the deactivation of solid catalysts.
Keywords :
biodiesel , Calcium oxide , potassium phosphate , Mixing characteristics , Ultrasound-assisted reactor , Reusability of catalyst
Journal title :
Fuel Processing Technology
Journal title :
Fuel Processing Technology
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