Willner، نويسنده , , Itamar and Willner، نويسنده , , Bilha and Katz، نويسنده , , Eugenii، نويسنده ,
Recent advances in nanobiotechnology involve the use of biomolecule–nanoparticle (NP) hybrid systems for bioelectronic applications. This is exemplified by the electrical contacting of redox enzymes by means of Au-NPs. The enzymes, glucose oxidase, GOx, and glucose dehydrogenase, GDH, are electrically contacted with the electrodes by the reconstitution of the corresponding apo-proteins on flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-functionalized Au-NPs (1.4 nm) associated with electrodes, respectively. Similarly, Au-NPs integrated into polyaniline in a micro-rod configuration associated with electrodes provides a high surface area matrix with superior charge transport properties for the effective electrical contacting of GOx with the electrode. A different application of biomolecule–Au-NP hybrids for bioelectronics involves the use of Au-NPs as carriers for a nucleic acid that is composed of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme units and a detecting segment complementary to the analyte DNA. The functionalized Au-NPs are employed for the amplified DNA detection, and for the analysis of telomerase activity in cancer cells, using chemiluminescence as a readout signal.
ecule–semiconductor NP hybrid systems are used for the development of photoelectrochemical sensors and optoelectronic systems. A hybrid system consisting of acetylcholine esterase (AChE)/CdS–NPs is immobilized in a monolayer configuration on an electrode. The photocurrent generated by the system in the presence of thioacetylcholine as substrate provides a means to probe the AChE activity. The blocking of the photocurrent by 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethyl ammonium phenyl)pentane-3-one dibromide as nerve gas analog enables the photoelectrochemical analysis of AChE inhibitors. Also, the association CdS–NP/double-stranded DNA hybrid systems with a Au-electrode, and the intercalation of methylene blue into the double-stranded DNA, generates an organized nanostructure of switchable photoelectrochemical functions. Electrochemical reduction of the intercalator to the leuco form, −0.4 V vs. SCE, results in a cathodic photocurrent as a result of the transfer of photoexcited conduction-band electrons to O2 and the transport of electrons to the valance-band holes by the reduced intercalator units. The oxidation of the intercalator, E 0 V (vs. SCE), yields in the presence of triethanolamine, TEOA, as sacrificial electron donor, an anodic photocurrent by the transport of conduction-band electrons, through intercalator units, to the electrodes, and filling the valance-band holes with electrons supplied by TEOA. The systems reveal potential-switchable directions of the photocurrents, and reveal logic gate functions.
Nanobiotechnology , enzymes , photoelectrochemistry , Nanoparticles , Electrochemistry , DNA