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Title of article :
Modelling crowd–bridge dynamic interaction with a discretely defined crowd
Author/Authors :
Carroll، نويسنده , , S.P. and Owen، نويسنده , , J.S. and Hussein، نويسنده , , M.F.M.، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2012
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Abstract :
This paper presents a novel method of modelling crowd–bridge interaction using discrete element theory (DET) to model the pedestrian crowd. DET, also known as agent-based modelling, is commonly used in the simulation of pedestrian movement, particularly in cases where building evacuation is critical or potentially problematic. Pedestrians are modelled as individual elements subject to global behavioural rules. In this paper a discrete element crowd model is coupled with a dynamic bridge model in a time-stepping framework. Feedback takes place between both models at each time-step. An additional pedestrian stimulus is introduced that is a function of bridge lateral dynamic behaviour. The pedestriansʹ relationship with the vibrating bridge as well as the pedestrians around them is thus simulated. The lateral dynamic behaviour of the bridge is modelled as a damped single degree of freedom (SDoF) oscillator. The excitation and mass enhancement of the dynamic system is determined as the sum of individual pedestrian contributions at each time-step. Previous crowd–structure interaction modelling has utilised a continuous hydrodynamic crowd model. Limitations inherent in this modelling approach are identified and results presented that demonstrate the ability of DET to address these limitations. Simulation results demonstrate the modelʹs ability to consider low density traffic flows and inter-subject variability. The emergence of the crowdʹs velocity–density relationship is also discussed.
Journal title :
Journal of Sound and Vibration
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