Title of article :
Perspectives on the closed fuel cycle – Implications for high-level waste matrices
Gras، نويسنده , , Jean-Marie and Quang، نويسنده , , Richard Do and Masson، نويسنده , , Hervé and Lieven، نويسنده , , Thierry and Ferry، نويسنده , , Cécile and Poinssot، نويسنده , , Christophe and Debes، نويسنده , , Michel and Delbecq، نويسنده , , Jean-Michel، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2007
Nuclear energy accounts for 80% of electricity production in France, generating approximately 1150 t of spent fuel for an electrical output of 420 TWh. Based on a reprocessing–conditioning–recycling strategy, the orientations taken by Électricité de France (EDF) for the mid-term and the far-future are to keep the fleet performances at the highest level, and to maintain the nuclear option fully open by the replacement of present pressurized water reactor (PWR) by new light water reactor (LWR), such as the evolutionary pressurized reactor (EPR) and future Generation IV designs. Adaptations of waste materials to new requirements will come with these orientations in order to meet long-term energy sustainability. In particular, waste materials and spent fuels are expected to meet increased requirements in comparison with the present situation. So the treatment of higher burn-up UO2 spent fuel and MOX fuel requires determining the performances of glass and other matrices according to several criteria: chemical ‘digestibility’ (i.e. capacity of glass to incorporate fission products and minor actinides without loss of quality), resistance to alpha self-irradiation, residual power in view of disposal. Considering the long-term evolution of spent MOX fuel in storage, the helium production, the influence of irradiation damages accumulation and the evolution of the microstructure of the fuel pellet need to be known, as well as for the future fuels. Further, the eventual transmutation of minor actinides in fast neutron reactors (FR) of Generation IV, if its interest in optimising high-level waste management is proven, may also raise new challenges about the materials and fuel design. Some major questions in terms of waste materials and spent fuel are discussed in this paper.
Journal title :
Journal of Nuclear Materials