Title of article :
Spatial root distribution of mature apple trees under drip irrigation system
D.I. Sokalska، نويسنده , , D.Z. Haman، نويسنده , , A. Szewczuk، نويسنده , , J. Sobota، نويسنده , , D. Dere?، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2009
The study was undertaken in order to quantify the effect of 12-year irrigation by drip emitters placed on one side of the tree trunk on the rooting pattern of Gloster apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) grafted on M26 rootstock under the conditions of south-west Poland. The orchard was established in 1994 and since 1995 was drip irrigated under three treatments: V0 – without irrigation (control), V1 – intensive irrigation, and V2 – economical irrigation. In March 2007, after 12 years of irrigation, a profile trench observation method was used to map the number and the location of root distribution in clay loam (Luvisol) soil.
The root system architecture was largely affected by irrigation. In case of the trees irrigated intensively (V1), the study showed asymmetry in the distribution of roots of diameter <1 mm and 1–3 mm. In V1, shallow root system, concentrated in the wetted zone developed on the irrigated side of the tree, where on the side of the tree trunk opposite the emitter trees developed significantly larger numbers of roots, which penetrated deeper soil layers. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of roots between both sides of the tree trunk under the treatment with economical irrigation (V2). Moreover, spatial roots distribution over the entire soil profile was found to be the most uniform compared to the other experimental treatments (V0 and V1). Finally, the study examined the relationship between root system and yield. Obtained results showed that in the 3-year period less frequent water application (V2) resulted in the highest yield.
Drip irrigation , Yield , Spatial root distribution , Apple tree
Journal title :
Agricultural Water Management