Record number :
Title of article :
Summer cover crop impacts on soil percolation and nitrogen leaching from a winter corn field
Author/Authors :
R. Mu?oz-Carpena، نويسنده , , A. Ritter، نويسنده , , D.D. Bosch، نويسنده , , B. Schaffer، نويسنده , , T.L. Potter، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2008
Pages :
From page :
To page :
Abstract :
The impacts of a leguminous summer cover crop (sunn hemp; Crotalaria juncea) on nitrogen leaching from a corn (Zea mays L.) field was evaluated by direct measurements of soil water content and nitrogen balance components, complemented by direct and inverse modeling as an exploratory tool to better understand water flow and nitrogen balances in the soil. Water and nitrogen inputs and outputs were measured during winter corn production in an experimental field located in the south Miami-Dade basin in southern Florida (USA). Data from the last two seasons (2001–2002 and 2002–2003) of a 4-year study are presented. The field was divided into six 0.13 ha plots. One-half of the plots were rotated with sunn hemp (CC plots) during the summer while the remaining plots were kept fallow (NC plots). Sweet corn management was uniform on all plots and followed grower recommended practices. A numerical model (WAVE) for describing water and agrochemical movement in the soil was used to simulate water and nitrogen balances in both types of plots during the corn seasons. The hydrodynamic component of WAVE was calibrated with soil water data collected continuously at three depths, which resulted in accurate soil water content predictions (coefficients of efficiency of 0.85 and 0.91 for CC and NC plots, respectively). Measured components of the nitrogen balance (corn yields, estimated nitrogen uptake, and soil organic nitrogen) were used to positively assess the quality of the nitrogen simulation results. Results of the modeled water balance indicate that using sunn hemp as a cover crop improved the soil physical conditions (increase in soil water retention) and subsequently enhanced actual crop evapotranspiration and reduced soil drainage. However, nitrogen simulation results suggest that, although corn nitrogen uptake and yields were slightly higher in the CC plots than in the NC plots, there were net increases of soil N content that resulted in increased N leaching to the shallow aquifer. Therefore, the use of sunn hemp as cover crop should be coupled with reductions in N fertilizer applied to the winter crop to account for the net increase in soil N content.
Keywords :
Nitrogen leaching , Deep percolation , Maize , Crotalaria juncea , Sunn hemp , WAVE model , Vadose zone , Groundwater pollution , Modeling , Irrigation , Cover crop , Water management
Journal title :
Agricultural Water Management
Link To Document :