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Title of article :
Changes in soil hydraulic conductivity, runoff, and soil loss due to irrigation with different types of saline–sodic water
Author/Authors :
Uttam Kumar Mandal، نويسنده , , A. K. Bhardwaj، نويسنده , , D. N. Warrington، نويسنده , , Dina Goldstein، نويسنده , , A. Bar Tal، نويسنده , , R. L. Willis & G. J. Levy، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2008
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Abstract :
Irrigation with saline–sodic water causes sodic conditions in the soil which reduces soil productivity. We evaluated the changes in a number of important indices related to soil structural stability when treated wastewater (TWW), albeit with higher loads of organic matter and suspended solids, was used instead of more saline–sodic irrigation water, under different degrees of aggregate slaking. We studied soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (HC) using disturbed samples packed in columns, and soil infiltration rate, runoff and erosion under simulated rainfall. Aggregate slaking was manipulated by wetting the samples prior to all tests at either a slow (1–2 mm h− 1) or a fast (50 mm h− 1) rate. Samples of a calcareous silty clay (Typic Calciorthids) from the Bet Sheʹan Valley, Israel, were taken from plots irrigated for three years with either TWW, saline–sodic Jordan River water (JRW), or moderately saline–sodic spring water (SPW), and also from a non-cultivated area (control). With little or no aggregate slaking (use of slow wetting), higher HC values and lower amounts of total runoff and soil loss were measured compared to when more severe aggregate slaking was induced (use of fast wetting). The HC values for the TWW treatment were similar to, or lower than, those for the control and significantly higher than those for the JRW treatment. For the runoff and soil loss data, differences among the water quality treatments were, generally, more pronounced when aggregate slaking was substantially reduced, and were related to soil sodicity. Under the latter condition, runoff and soil loss from the TWW treatment were comparable with those from the control and significantly lower than those from the JRW treatment. Our results suggested that replacing saline–sodic irrigation water with TWW could have favorable effects on soil structural stability, especially under conditions where aggregate slaking can be reduced (e.g., in regions with low to moderate rain intensities; and/or use of low intensity irrigation systems).
Keywords :
Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) , electrical conductivity (EC) , Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) , Wetting rate , Aggregate slaking , Treated Wastewater
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