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Title of article :
Geochemical Changes in Metal and Nutrient Loading at Orplands Farm Managed Retreat Site, Essex, UK (April 1995–1997)
Author/Authors :
C.L. MacLeod، نويسنده , , M.D. Scrimshaw، نويسنده , , R.H.C. Emmerson، نويسنده , , Y.-H Chang، نويسنده , , J.N. Lester، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 1999
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Abstract :
Salt marshes have recently been considered to be a major part of the coastal system and have played a key role in the development of the UK coastal management strategy. Managed Retreat (MR) is a process aimed to restore salt marshes by realignment of the seawalls allowing tidal inundation of low value agricultural land. The resultant marshes are expected to function both as an integral part of the flood defence system and as an ecological conservation area. We report on the effects of salt marsh restoration on metal and nutrient loading of the sediment at the Orplands Farm MR site, Essex, UK. Surficial grab and sediment cores were collected from the two fields that comprise the site. The heavy metals, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni and Zn were analysed to determine changes in anthropogenic inputs to sediments. The major ions, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Na were also monitored to identify changes in sediment geochemistry. Analysis of the cored sediments after inundation for Na and Sr demonstrated that penetration of estuarine water had, within 2 yr of exposure, reached an average depth of 20 cm. The study observed that input of heavy metals had occurred to the sediments with the most significant being that of Pb, however increases were also observed for Cr and Cu. However, concentrations of Cd in the MR sediments decreased from 1995 to 1997. For the major metals within both fields it was found that the dominant changes were those of enrichment of marine associated metals, Ca, K, Mg and Na via inputs from tidal inundation. The concentration of Ca in the sediments was further enriched by the deposition of carbonates to the sediments. One field demonstrated a significant loss of Fe from sediments which corresponded to changes in redox potential of the sediments. Differences observed in geochemical profiles between the two fields of the site were attributed to differences in land use prior to flooding.
Keywords :
Saltmarsh , Pollutant , Blackwater , flood defence , Estuary
Journal title :
Marine Pollution Bulletin
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