Carsten Kintscher، نويسنده , , Yvonne Groemping، نويسنده ,
Cdc42, a member of the Ras superfamily of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins, plays an important role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton, intracellular trafficking, and cell polarity. Its activation is controlled by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which stimulate the dissociation of bound guanosine-5′-diphosphate (GDP) to allow guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP) binding. Here, we investigate the exchange factor activity of the Dbl-homology domain containing constructs of the adaptor protein Intersectin1L (ITSN1L), which is a specific GEF for Cdc42. A detailed kinetic characterisation comparing ITSN1L-mediated nucleotide exchange on Cdc42 in its GTP- versus GDP-bound state reveals a kinetic discrimination for GEF-stimulated dissociation of GTP: The maximum acceleration of the intrinsic mGDP [2′/3′-O-(N-methyl-anthraniloyl)-GDP] release from Cdc42 by ITSN1L is accelerated at least 68,000-fold, whereas the exchange of mGTP [2′/3′-O-(N-methyl-anthraniloyl)-GTP] is stimulated only up to 6000-fold at the same GEF concentration. The selectivity in nucleotide exchange kinetics for GDP over GTP is even more pronounced when a Cdc42 mutant, F28L, is used, which is characterised by fast intrinsic dissociation of nucleotides. We furthermore show that both GTP and Mg2+ ions are required for the interaction with effectors. We suggest a novel model for selective nucleotide exchange residing on a conformational change of Cdc42 upon binding of GTP, which enables effector binding to the Cdc42 · GTP complex but, at the same time, excludes efficient modulation by the GEF. The higher exchange activity of ITSN1L towards the GDP-bound conformation of Cdc42 could represent an evolutionary adaptation of this GEF that ensures nucleotide exchange towards the formation of the signalling-active GTP-bound form of Cdc42 and avoids dissociation of the active complex.
Kinetics , mGDP/mGTP , guanine nucleotide exchange factor , Intersectin1L , Cdc42