Joshua A Bornhorst، نويسنده , , Joseph J Falke، نويسنده ,
The two-state model of receptor activation, in which a receptor population exists in equilibrium between a single on-state and a single off-state, has long been considered a viable model for the signaling behavior of bacterial chemoreceptors. Here, we show that this simple, homogeneous two-state model is adequate for a pure receptor population with just one adaptation state, but fails to account quantitatively for the observed linear relationship between the apparent attractant affinity (K1/2) and kinase activity (Vobsapo) as the adaptation state is varied. Further analysis reveals that the available data are instead consistent with a heterogeneous two-state model in which covalent modification of receptor adaptation sites changes the microscopic properties of the on-state or off-state. In such a system, each receptor molecule retains a single on-state and off-state, but covalent adaptation generates a heterogeneous population of receptors exhibiting a range of different on-states or off-states with different microscopic parameters and conformations. It follows that covalent adaptation transforms the receptor from a simple, two-state toggle switch into a variable switch. In order to identify the microscopic parameters most sensitive to covalent adaptation, six modified, two-state models were examined in which covalent adaptation alters a different microscopic parameter. The analysis suggests that covalent adaptation primarily alters the ligand-binding affinity of the receptor off-state (KD1). By contrast, models in which covalent adaptation alters the ligand-binding affinity of the receptor on-state, the maximal kinase stimulation of the on-state or off-state, cooperative interactions between receptors, or the assembly of the receptor-kinase signaling complex are inconsistent with the available evidence. Overall, the findings support a heterogeneous two-state model in which modification of the receptor adaptation sites generates a population of receptors with heterogeneous off-states differing in their attractant affinities.
Bacterial chemotaxis , receptor adaptation , CheA , two-state model , Covalent modification