C.L. Liu، نويسنده , , G. Kirchengast، نويسنده , , K.F. Zhang، نويسنده , , R. Norman، نويسنده , , Y. Li، نويسنده , , S.C. Zhang، نويسنده , , B. Carter، نويسنده , , J. Fritzer، نويسنده , , M. Schwaerz، نويسنده , , S.L. Choy، نويسنده , , S.Q. Wu، نويسنده , , Z.X. Tan، نويسنده ,
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) is an innovative meteorological remote sensing technique for measuring atmospheric parameters such as refractivity, temperature, water vapour and pressure for the improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) and global climate monitoring (GCM). GNSS RO has many unique characteristics including global coverage, long-term stability of observations, as well as high accuracy and high vertical resolution of the derived atmospheric profiles. One of the main error sources in GNSS RO observations that significantly affect the accuracy of the derived atmospheric parameters in the stratosphere is the ionospheric error. In order to mitigate the effect of this error, the linear ionospheric correction approach for dual-frequency GNSS RO observations is commonly used. However, the residual ionospheric errors (RIEs) can be still significant, especially when large ionospheric disturbances occur and prevail such as during the periods of active space weather. In this study, the RIEs were investigated under different local time, propagation direction and solar activity conditions and their effects on RO bending angles are characterised using end-to-end simulations. A three-step simulation study was designed to investigate the characteristics of the RIEs through comparing the bending angles with and without the effects of the RIEs. This research forms an important step forward in improving the accuracy of the atmospheric profiles derived from the GNSS RO technique.
GNSS , Radio occultation , Bending angle , Residual ionospheric errors