Aihua Zhu، نويسنده , , Panagiotis D. Christofides، نويسنده , , Yoram Cohen، نويسنده ,
Various mixing operations between the feed, retentate and permeate streams are studied in this work to determine their effectiveness in decreasing the specific energy consumption (SEC) of single-stage (single-pass), two-pass and two-stage reverse osmosis (RO) processes operated at the limit of the thermodynamic restriction. The results show that in a single-stage RO process, partial retentate recycling to the feed stream does not change the SEC, while partial permeate recycling to the feed stream increases the SEC if targeting the same overall water recovery. Energy optimization of two-pass membrane desalination, with second-pass retentate recycling to the first-pass feed stream and operated at the limit imposed by the thermodynamic restriction, revealed the existence of a critical water recovery. When desalting is accomplished at recoveries above the critical water recovery, two-pass desalination with recycling is always less efficient than single-pass desalination. When desalting is accomplished at recoveries below the critical water recovery, an operational sub-domain exists in which the SEC for a two-pass process with recycling can be lower than for a single-pass counterpart, when the latter is not operated at its globally optimal state. For the two-stage RO process, diverting part of the raw feed to the second stage, in order to dilute the feed to the second-stage RO, does not decrease the minimal achievable SEC of a two-stage RO process. The various mixing approaches, while may provide certain operational or system design advantages (e.g., with respect to achieving target salt rejection for certain solutes or flux balancing), do not provide an advantage from an energy usage perspective.
Two-pass membrane desalination , Nanofiltration , Membrane desalting , Reverse osmosis , Thermodynamic restriction