Record number :
100066
Title of article :
Systematic comparison of HF CMOS transconductors
Author/Authors :
E.A.M.، Klumperink, نويسنده , , B.، Nauta, نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2003
Pages :
-727
From page :
728
To page :
0
Abstract :
Transconductors are commonly used as active elements in high-frequency (HF) filters, amplifiers, mixers, and oscillators. This paper reviews transconductor design by focusing on the V-I kernel that determines the key transconductor properties. Based on bandwidth considerations, simple V-I kernels with few or no internal nodes are preferred. In a systematic way, virtually all simple kernels published in literature are generated. This is done in two steps: 1) basic 3-terminal transconductors are covered and 2) then five different techniques to combine two of them in a composite V-I kernel. In order to compare transconductors in a fair way, a normalized signal-to-noise ratio (NSNR) is defined. The basic V-I kernels and the five classes of composite V-I kernels are then compared, leading to insight in the key mechanisms that affect NSNR. Symbolic equations are derived to estimate NSNR, while simulations with more advanced MOSFET models verify the results. The results show a strong tradeoff between NSNR and transconductance tuning range. Resistively generated MOSFETs render the best NSNR results and are robust for future technology developments.
Keywords :
Abdominal obesity , Food patterns , waist circumference , Prospective study
Journal title :
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS II:ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
Journal title :
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS II:ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
Serial Year :
2003
Link To Document :
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