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Title of article :
The effect of promoters on the electronic structure of ruthenium catalysts supported on carbon
Author/Authors :
Monica Guraya، نويسنده ,
Issue Information :
روزنامه با شماره پیاپی سال 2004
Pages :
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Abstract :
Alkali- and earth-alkali-promoted ruthenium catalysts supported on graphitized carbon were investigated by means of X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) in order to study the effect of promoters on the electronic structure of this metal–support system. Samples were measured as prepared and after thorough reduction in hydrogen. The C 1s spectra of reduced alkali-promoted catalysts showed a shift towards higher binding energies and an asymmetric broadening. Neither nonpromoted nor Ba-promoted Ru/C samples exhibited such a behaviour after similar treatments. The most important feature in the UP spectra of the reduced alkali-promoted catalysts was the appearance of a well defined Fermi edge absent in the semimetallike electronic structure of graphite. No significant effects appeared in the case of non-promoted or Ba-promoted catalysts. The increase in the density of occupied states at the Fermi energy indicates a shift of this level into the conduction band, due to a charge transfer from the promoter to the support. This interpretation also provides an explanation for the observed higher C 1s binding energy and asymmetric broadening, due to the off-set introduced in the binding energy scale and the increasing probability of inelastic excitations near the Fermi level. In addition to photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy ion scattering (ISS) was used to obtain information about the localisation of the promoters. Based on the mild sputtering effect during prolonged series of spectra, it was possible to conclude that potassium covers both the carbon support and the Ru metal particles
Keywords :
Ruthenium , Carbon , Ammonia synthesis , Alkali promoter , Supported catalyst , ISS , UPS , XPS
Journal title :
Applied Surface Science
Journal title :
Applied Surface Science
Serial Year :
Link To Document :